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Issue 12 (3) 2013 pp. 25-36

Artur Chrzanowski, Andrzej Mazur, Robert Kuźmiński, Andrzej Łabędzki

Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu

HABITATS OF LARGE COPPER (LYCAENA DISPAR, HAWORTH, 1802) AND VIOLET COPPER (LYCAENA HELLE, DENIS & SCHIFFERMüLLER, 1775) (LYCAENIDAE, LEPIDOPTERA) AND PROTECTIVE ACTIONS ON THE TERRITORIES ADMINISTERED BY STATE FORESTS NATIONAL FOREST HOLDIN

Keywords: Large Copper, Violet Copper, Lycaenidae, Natura 2000, protective actions
Abstract:

The aim of the study was to work out preventive and protective measures for two species of the Lycaenidae family included in the Natura 2000 program on the territories administered by PGL Lasy Państwowe (State Forests National Forest Holding).
On the basis of the data analysis there was drawn a characteristics of biotopes images were most often found. The following proposed actions were defined in order to minimize threat to Lycaena dispar:

A. Actions aiming at preservation of the butterfly development territory

– evaluation of treats to a particular refugium

– if necessary – performance of melioration works consisting in restoration of optimum humidity conditions for the development of the Large Copper’s host plants

– cleaning of ditches and their embankments while preserving as much sorrel as possible; this plant should remain intact on embankments and in their surroundings; if the ditches, covered with sorrel, need restoration of canalization it is necessary to determine places of the Large Copper caterpillars development before any works are started in order to minimize damage to the population; after consulting an expert it should be considered to conduct the works in stages over several seasons

– if the Large Copper appears on a particular territory only in one stand in the forest division, abandoning melioration works and starting preventive measures should be considered

– clearing trees and bushes limiting places for the Large Copper host plants development

– educating users and leasers of meadows (only the insect refugia) – attracting attention to places where sorrel grows and to their meaning to the species development

– mowing fragments of meadows and pastures used extensively in places where sorrel grows; since the larvae remain during the day on the lower parts of the plants, the cutting height in the places where sorrel grows may not be smaller than 25 cm; with this assumption taken there should be no danger to most Large Copper caterpillars; no periods for optimum or risk minimizing mowing are defined

– the ban on burning grass should be absolutely observed.

B. While performing chemical actions against grading folivores special protection zones should be kept

– in the 1st generation variant:

• from June till the end of July – 500-meter buffer zone

• from August till the end of May – 100-meter buffer zone

   In the case of bacterial agents application – from August till the middle of March with no buffer zones determined; in other periods the above stated buffer zones should be kept.

– in the 2nd generation variant:

• from the 2nd decade of May till the end of August – 500-meter buffer zone,

• from September till the end of the 1st decade of May – 100-meter buffer zone.

   In the case of bacterial agents application – from August till the middle of March with no buffer zones determined; in other periods the above stated buffer zones should be kept.

As regards the Lycaena helle the following action were proposed in order to enable preservation of the species:

A. Actions aiming at preservation of the development territory

– evaluation of treats to a particular refugium

– if necessary – performance of melioration works consisting in restoration of optimum humidity conditions for the development of the Polygonum bistorta

– mowing green plants above the middle of their mean height (so-called ‘topping’) of Polygonum clumps; manual mowing is recommended; the cutting should absolutely remain on the surface; if orchid plants appear on the territory, the fastest mowing date should be at the end of August when the butterfly is in the egg phase; in other cases mowing may be conducted at the beginning of July; grazing cattle is recommended instead of mowing

– clearing trees and bushes limiting places for the Polygonum development; it is permitted to leave several scattered bushed as an imago prefers light mosaic.

B. Chemical actions against gradation folivores are permitted under the following conditions

– from the 3rd decade of April till the end of August – 500-meter buffer zone

– from September till the end of the 2nd decade of April – 100-meter buffer zone

– in the case of bacterial agents application it is permitted from August till the middle of March with no buffer zones determined; in other periods the above stated buffer zones should be kept.

The Large Copper is the most common species from the Natura 2000 List occurring on the territory of Poland, and due to its numerous recognised stands and development possibilities in a vast spectrum of habitats and host plants, it is not a species endangered with extinction. The Violet Copper is a species endangered with extinction and requires active protection due to its monophagism.

 

pub/.pdf Full text available in english in Adobe Acrobat format:
http://www.forestry.actapol.net/pub/3_3_2013.pdf

For citation:

MLA Chrzanowski, Artur, et al. "Habitats of Large Copper (Lycaena dispar, Haworth, 1802) and Violet Copper (Lycaena helle, Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) and protective actions on the territories administered by State Forests National Forest Holdin." Acta Sci.Pol. Silv. 12.3 (2013): 25-36.
APA Chrzanowski A., Mazur A., Kuźmiński R., Łabędzki A. (2013). Habitats of Large Copper (Lycaena dispar, Haworth, 1802) and Violet Copper (Lycaena helle, Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) and protective actions on the territories administered by State Forests National Forest Holdin. Acta Sci.Pol. Silv. 12 (3), 25-36
ISO 690 CHRZANOWSKI, Artur, et al. Habitats of Large Copper (Lycaena dispar, Haworth, 1802) and Violet Copper (Lycaena helle, Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera) and protective actions on the territories administered by State Forests National Forest Holdin. Acta Sci.Pol. Silv., 2013, 12.3: 25-36.
Streszczenie w języku polskim:
http://www.forestry.actapol.net/tom12/zeszyt3/streszczenie-3.html